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語彙密度 - Lexical Density

英語

英語の講義でやった語彙密度というものが興味深いので、適当な説明と文献を載せておきます。語彙密度は、文章中に含まれる意味の割合です。語彙とは、名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞といった、単語に関連する単語、もしくは意味を持つ単語のことです。 - 'Cause lexical density, I learnt in English lecture, is interesting, I put some appropriately explanations and references. Lexical Density is a norm of how the sentence contains meaning. Lexical means dealing with words, related to words, or meaning words, for example, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

文中に含む語彙数を、#L とします。語彙には、冠詞、代名詞といった、それ自体に意味を持たないものは含みません (これらを非語彙とします)。文中に含む非語彙数を、#NL とします。これらの文字を用いると、語彙密度の数式は以下のとおりです。 - We let the number of lexical words be #L. Lexical don't include words, no meaning words, for instance, articles, and pronouns (Let them be no lexical). We let the number of no lexical words be #NL. The formula of lexical density is following by using these characters.

Lexical Density (%) = (#L / #L + #NL) * 100  ... (1)

語彙密度は、文書作成のよい指標となります。一般的に、語彙密度は、科学論文では約 70%、会話では約 40% です。例を見てみましょう。以下の文章は、英語の論文からの引用です。 - Lexical Density is great norm to write your documents. Generally, Lexical Density is about 70% in some scientific reports and is approximately 40% in some conversations. Let's look at the example. This is the quotation of English thesis.

Because contrastive rhetoric research has been so heavily criticized in the field of ESL composition, it's important to consider some voices of dissention to contextualize current perceptions of contrastive rhetoric research.

引用元は、下記の参考文献一覧[3]を参照ください。分かりやすくするため、語彙は大文字に、非語彙は小文字にします。 - Please refer to the list [3] of bibliographies as below. To make this easier to understand, I converted Lexical words to upper-case and no Lexical words to lower-case.

BECAUSE CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC RESEARCH has been SO HEAVILY CRITICIZED in the FIELD of ESL COMPOSITION, it's IMPORTANT to CONSIDER SOME VOICES of DISSENTION to CONTEXTUALIZE CURRENT PERCEPTIONS of CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC RESEARCH.

語彙密度を計算してみましょう。式 (1) より、 - Let's calculate Lexical Density. According to the formula (1),

Lexical Density (%) = (21 / 31) * 100 = 67.7% ... (a)

となり、語彙密度は 67.7 % と導けます。では、次に会話文の語彙密度を計算してみましょう。以下の文章は、自分が書いた適当な自己紹介文です。 - We can lead to an answer to Lexical Density is 67.7 %. Now, next, let's lead figure Lexical Density of conversation documents. The following is the self introduction sentences I properly wrote.

Hi, everyone, nice to meet you.  I'm Bekkou.  Please call me Bekkou or NEX. Uh, NEX means Nicovideo EXpert, which I thought up, and I love Nicovideo very much. I am looking forward to having a life with you from this time, thank you.

文字変換します。 - Do character conversion.

hi, NICE to MEET you.  i'm BEKKOU.  please CALL me BEKKOU or NEX.
uh, NEX MEANS NICOVIDEO EXPERT, which i THOUGHT up, and i LOVE NICOVIDEO VERY MUCH.
i am LOOKING FORWARD to HAVING a LIFE with you from this TIME, THANK you.

語彙密度を計算します。 - Now, we figure out Lexical Density.

Lexical Density (%) = (21 / 43) * 100 = 48.8% ... (b)

語彙密度は 48.8 % ですね。科学論文と会話文の語彙密度である、(a) と (b) を比較すると、やはり科学論文の方が語彙密度が高いことが分かります。理由としては、会話文は間投詞を含んだり、「動詞+前置詞」の表現が多いことな>どがあります。最後に、科学論文を書く際に、語彙密度を上げるためにはどうすれば良いかを簡単に書きます。 - Now we can see that Lexical Density is 48.8 %. Comparing Lexical Density of scientific report and conversation sentence as (a) and (b), we can realize that Lexical Density of scientific report is higher. Because, conversation sentence has interjections and includes many expressions as "verb + preposition". At last, I'll simply show you how to increase Lexical Density when you write scientific article.

・句動詞でなく、単一動詞にする  Phrasal verb to single verb
ex) "come up with" to "offer"

・To不定詞を名詞化する  Nominalize to-infinitive
ex)“to discover” to “discovery”

・無駄な主語を省く  Omit useless subjects
ex) "We had the experiment and it can suggest the following results." to "The experiment suggests the following results."

まだ方法はあるので、興味のある方は調べてみてください。
There are more methods, so please search for, if you are interested in.

参考文献一覧 - List of Bibliographies

[1] Wikipedia in English
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_density

[2] lc_Meunier1998
http://www.sakauetatsuya.net/edu/2003/lc/lc_meunier.html

[3] STUDENTS AS CONTRASTIVE RHETORICIANS:EXAMINING ESL STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF L1 AND L2 RHETORICAL CONVENTIONS
http://w3.coh.arizona.edu/awp/AWP12/AWP12%5BSmith%5D.pdf

面白いので、適当な論文や会話文をを引っ張ってきて、語彙密度を計算してみてください。語彙密度は英語論文を作成する際に、是非ツールとして使ってください。なお、誤りなどございましたら、教えていただけると嬉しい限りです。 - It is interesting, so please calculate Lexical Density for appropriate some reports and conversational sentences. If you write your thesis in English, please use Lexical Density as tool. I'm very happy that you contact to me if you find some mistakes.

では。 - Bye.

ーωー